Sunday, March 29, 2020
'The Grapes of Wrath Importance of the Title The Grapes of Wrath, a Pulitzer-prize winning book written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939, tells the story ofÃ theÃ Joads, a poor family ofÃ tenant farmers driven out of Depression-era Oklahoma also referred to as Oakies by drought and economic factors, who migrate to Californa in search of a better life. Steinbeck had trouble coming up with the title for the novel, a classic in American literature, and his wife actually suggested using the phrase. From Bible to Battle Hymn The title, itself, is a reference to lyrics from The Battle Hymn of the Republic, written in 1861 byÃ Julia Ward Howe, and first published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1862: Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord:He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored;He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword:His truth is marching on. The words have some important resonance in American culture. For example, Martin Luther King Jr, in hisÃ addressÃ at the conclusion of the Selma-to-Montgomery, Alabama, civil rights march in 1965, quoted these very wordsÃ fromÃ the hymn.Ã The lyrics, in turn, reference a biblicalÃ passage inÃ Revelations 14:19-20, where the evil inhabitants of Earth perish: Ã And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great wine press of the wrath of God.Ã And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the wine press, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs. In the Book The phrase grapes of wrath does not appear almost until the end of the 465-page novel: In the souls of the people, the grapes of wrath are filling and growing heavy, growing heavy for the vintage. According to eNotes; The oppressed such as the Okies are ripening in their understanding of their oppression. The fruit of their anger is ready to be harvested. In other words, you can push the downtrodden so far, but eventually, there will be aÃ price to pay. In all of these references from the tribulations ofÃ Joads, to the battle hymn, the biblical passage and Kings speech the key point is that in response to any oppression, there will be a reckoning, likely ordained by God, and that rightness and justice will prevail. Study Guide QuotesThe Battle Hymn of the RepublicQuestions for Study DiscussionJohn Steinbeck Biography
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Classical Music Concert with 3 Instruments essays Classical Music is still popular after it has already developed for hundreds of years. Currently, there are still many people fascinate this unique kind of performing music by many classical instruments. Unlike pop-musical instruments, classical instruments are usually much more peaceful. As a result, the atmosphere they create is extremely pacific; this kind of atmosphere is simple to depict many scenes of many stories. The concert, Bonie Hampton and Faculty Friends: A Chamber Music Reunion, which was performed by faculty of Juilliard School of Music, is a classic classical performance with only piano, violin, and viola. It produced an extremely peaceful felling to listeners and allowed listeners to come out of many mental reflections of many different scenes in their minds. Before the concert started, listeners were waiting in the standby line and discussing about the greatness and contents of the concert with each other. I heard that this concert was centennial that performed by some experienced faculties of Julliard School and those faculties would not perform publicly very often. This concert became mysterious to me at that moment. The first song in the concert was called Robert Mann and Earl Carlyss, which was performed by piano and viola. It had a slow tempo at the beginning and continuously speeding up. When the song started, the dynamic was piano, after a minute, it became mezzo-piano. Overall, the entire song was crescendo. In the middle of the song, there were a few moments that had subito from piano to forte; it created many surprises for every listeners. I was shocked when subito happened. After the subito, the dynamic turned decrescendo. During the subito-decrescendo period, the entire dynamic was like a person climbed a hill up and down. The song seemed more and more interesting to the listeners, especially to me. The atmosphere of the whole song was from peaceful to...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Compensation - Assignment Example One would suspect that individual performance-based compensation (as opposed to a group performance-based compensation scheme) would have adverse effects on teamwork among employees. However, the study found that that the scheme ran at the company had no adverse effects on teamwork. Performance-based compensation, if well implemented, may lead to increased job satisfaction among the employees of an organization(Ismail, Raffiuddin and Mohamad 83). A study conducted in seventeen GIATMARA centers in Malaysia came to this conclusion. The study was rolled out in two stages. In the first stage, five experienced employees including two supervisors and three support staff were interviewed in depth at the GIATMARA headquarters in Kuala Lumpur. In the second phase of the study, questionnaires were administered to GIATMARA employees. The researchers set out to investigate employee participation in determining their pay and the extent to which the employees perceived their pay as adequate. The study concluded that a well-executed performance-based pay system leads to job satisfaction. A well-implemented performance-based pay system has at least two features: the employees participate in them and consider their pay adequate. Employee participation is achieved by encouraging employees in various job groups to take part in the design and administration of compensation systems. There is some evidence, albeit less compelling, that performance-based compensation could lead to higher employee retention(Dee and Wyckoff 26), presumably because of the job satisfaction that employees derive from these schemes. This was the verdict of a 2013 study by the National Bureau of Economic Research. The study sought to investigate IMPACT, the rather controversial system used by the District of Columbia Public Schools to evaluate and compensate teachers. The system stands out in that it proposes
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Social Site Keeping In Touch By Net - Essay Example Others depend on the type of content posted and revolve around copyright, intellectual property or confidentiality issues.". It is the matter of fact that, for any normal human being 7% of the communication is based on words and rests 93% is associated with nonverbal body language, Sometimes chat or communication through Facebook or any other non-visual chatting sites can create a false impression about how one is doing away from home. Tardanico in her report has mentioned that "it's only when we can hear a tone of voice or look into someone's eyes that we're able to know when "I'm fine" doesn't mean they're fine at all, or when "I'm in" doesn't mean they're brought in at allÃ¢â¬ . This is where the internet or social websites get dicey. With the help of technology, any one can hide is true emotion behind the words, through Facebook, e-mail or Twitter one can easily create an illusion of their choice. There are various positives which one can take away with the development of socia l technology. The word distance is now almost irrelevant as anyone can communicate whenever he or she wants with their family, friends and loved ones with just a few clicks. Social sites help the mankind immensely to communicate their feeling in front of the world where they can communicate and exchange their views with people across the globe. Tardanico in her review has mentioned that "Social technologies have broken the barriers of space and time, enabling us to interact 24/7 with more people than ever before."
Monday, January 27, 2020
Improving the Accuracy of Arabic DC System The main goal of this research is to investigate and to develop the appropriate text collections, tools and procedures for Arabic document classification. The following specific objectives have been set to achieve the main goal: To investigate the impact of preprocessing tasks including normalization, stop word removal, and stemming in improving the accuracy of Arabic DC system. To introduce a novel technique for Arabic stemming in order to improve the accuracy of the document classification system. The new algorithm for Arabic stemming tries to overcome the deficiencies in state-of-the-art Arabic stemming techniques and dealing with MWEs, foreign Arabized words and handling the majority of broken plural forms to reduce them into their singular form. To use Arabic text summarization technique as feature reduction technique to eliminate the noise on the documents and select the most salient sentences to represent the original documents. To explore the impact of different feature selection techniques on the accuracy of Arabic document classification and proposes and implements a new variant of Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) weighting methods that take into account the important of the first appearance of a word and the compactness of the word which can be taken as factors that determine the important features in the document. To implement various classifiers and compares their performances. 1.1.Problem Statement Despite the achievements in document classification, the performance of document classification systems is far from satisfactory. document classification tasks are characterized by natural languages. This means DC is closely related to natural language processing (NLP) which require knowledge of its subject matter. In general NL reveals many of syntactic and semantic ambiguities beside the complexities . In the context of DC, a researcher tries to address various problems arising from characteristics of documents in the process of feature extraction and feature representation; or problems emanating from the classification algorithms. The following sections provide ideas on research problems. 1.1.1. Preprocessing Text Problem The preprocessing stage is a challenge and affects positively or negatively on the performance of any DC system. Therefore, the improvement of the preprocessing stage for highly inflected language such as the Arabic language will enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the Arabic DC system. In spite of the lack of standard Arabic morphological analysis tools most of the previous studies on Arabic DC have proposed the use of preprocessing tasks to reduce the dimensionality of feature vectors without comprehensively examining their contribution in promoting the effectiveness of the DC system. One of the challenges facing the researchers in Arabic document classification systems is the absence of a strong and an effective stemming algorithm. Arabic is morphologically a complex language , it uses both kinds of morphologies: inflectional and derivational morphologies. Based on these types of morphology, a single word may yield hundreds or even thousands of variant forms . The impor tance of using the stemming technique in the documents classification lies in that it makes the processes less dependent on particular forms of words and reduces the highly dimensionality of the feature space, which, in turn, enhance the performance of the classification system.Ã In spite of the rapid research conducted in other languages, Arabic language still suffers from the shortages of researchers and development.Ã The state-of-the-art Arabic stemmers suffer from high stemming error-rates due to its understemming errors, overstemming errors, ignored the handling of multiword expressions (MWEs), broken plural forms, and Arabized words. Therefore, the limitations of the current Arabic stemming methods have motivated this author to investigate a novel technique for Arabic stemming to be used in the extraction of the word roots of Arabic language in order to improve the accuracy of the document classification system in chapter 5. 1.1.2. Highly Dimensionality of the Feature Space Extremely high dimensional features paces and large volumes of data problems occur in automatic document classification. High dimensionality problems arise because the number of features used in the classification process increases along with dimensionality of the feature vectors[13, 15, 48, 49]. Practical examples show that the number of features consisting the dimensionality could amount to thousands. A large number of features are irrelevant to the classification task and can be removed without affecting the classification accuracy for several reasons: First, the performance of some classification algorithms is negatively affected when dealing with a high dimensionality of features. Second, an over-fitting problem may occur when the classification algorithm is trained in all features. Finally, some features are common and occur in all or most of the categories . In order to solve this problem, the feature vector dimensionality is required to be reduced without degradation of classification performance. It was important to extract the features with high discriminating power using various techniques.Ã Text summarization, feature selection and feature weighting are common techniques and methods that are used in document classification to reduce the highly dimensionality of the feature space and to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the classification system. The term frequency (TF) weighted by inverse document frequency (IDF) which is abbreviated as TFIDF can partially solve the problem of variation in content and length in the documents but it cannot solve the problem of the distribution of the important words within the document. In general, the document is written in an organized manner to describe its main topic(s). For example, the main topic for news articles may mentions at the title and the first part of the document to draw the attention of the reader. Therefore, depending on the location, the document parts may have different degrees of contribution to the documents main topic(s) . In this thesis, we propose new feature weighting methods that treat the problem of the distribution of the important words within the document in chapter 6. In order to satisfy the objectives stated in this research, the research questions of this study can be summarized as: What are the impact of text preprocessing techniques such as normalization, stop word removal, and stemming in improving the performance of Arabic DC system? What are the available Arabic text preprocessing methods to be implemented in this research? What are their advantages and disadvantages? How to compare and improve their performance in order to improve the accuracy of the Arabic documents classification system? What are the Impact of feature reduction techniques on Arabic document classification? How to overcome the problem of the highly dimensionality of the feature space and the difficulty of selecting the important features for understanding the document? Which classification algorithms have the best performance when applied on different representations of Arabic dataset? 1.2.Research Contribution This research focuses on exploring different preprocessing techniques, dimensionality reduction techniques and investigating their effect on Arabic document classification performance. More specifically, the main contributions of this thesis are as follows: Demonstrate that using preprocessing task such as normalization, stop word removal, and stemming for Arabic datasets have a significant impact on the classification accuracy, especially with complicated morphological structure of the Arabic language. Furthermore, we demonstrate that choosing appropriate combinations of preprocessing tasks provides significant improvement on the accuracy of document classification depending on the feature size and classification techniques. In this thesis, we propose a novel stemmer for Arabic documents classification. The proposed stemmer attempts to overcome the weaknesses of root-based stemming technique and light stemming technique, in addition to dealing with the majority of broken plural forms, MWEs, and foreign Arabized words. We compare the proposed stemmer with the well-known Arabic stemmers, including root-base stemming (Khoja stemmer) and light stemming (Larkey stemmer), to study its contribution in improving the classification system. The comparison is carried out for different datasets, classification techniques, and performance measures. Demonstrate that using document summarization technique help to improve the efficiency of Arabic document classification by reducing the highly dimensionality of the feature space without affecting the value or content of documents, then saving the memory space and execution time for documents classification process. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of different feature selection techniques, namely, Information gain (IG), Goh and Low (NGL) coefficients, Chi-square Testing (CHI), and Galavotti-Sebastiani-Simi Coefficient (GSS) that have a significant impact on reducing the dimensionality of feature space and thus improve the performance of Arabic document classification system. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of feature representation schemas on the accuracy of Arabic document classification. The document usually consists of several parts and the important features that more closely associated with the topic of the document are appearing in the first parts or repeated in several parts of the document. Therefore, the proposed weighting methods take into account the important of the first appearance of a word and the compactness of the word which can be taken as factors that determine the important features in the document. Unfortunately, there is no free benchmarking dataset for Arabic documents classification. One of the aims of this research is to compile dataset for Arabic documents classification that cover different text genres which will be used in this research and can be used in the future as a benchmark for computation linguistics researches including text mining, information retrieval. The dataset collected from several published papers for Arabic document classification and from scanning the well-known and reputable Arabic websites. Compiling freely and publically available corpora is advancement step on the field of Arabic document classification.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Question 1 a. Mean age = 960/20=48 b. Standard Deviation = 10. 74832 Web address: http://easycalculation. com/statistics/standard-deviation. php Frequency distribution table for denomination. Score f(frequency) 1 1 2 2 4 2 5 1 6 3 7 3 8 1 9 3 10 3 12 1 N=30 c. What is the percentage of people who identify themselves as Baptist? 3/20 = . 15 x 100 = 15% What is the mode of church attendance? 5 Question 2 a. What is the Z score for a car with a price of $33,000? Z=2. 85714286 b. What is the Z score for a car with a price of $30,000? Z=2 Web address for calculator: http://www. danielsoper. com/statcalc3/calc. spx? id=22 c. At what percentile rank is a car that sold for $30,000? 97. 72% Web calculator used: http://easycalculation. com/statistics/zscore-to-percentile. php 3. One studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Math score was 70 and the same individualÃ¢â¬â¢s English score was 84. On which exam did the student do better? Math: +3 points divided by 9. 58 SD = . 3132 English: + 6 points divided by 12. 45 SD = . 482 The student did better on the English test. 4. Suppose you administered an anxiety test to a large sample of people and obtained normally distributed scores with a mean of 45 and standard deviation of 4. Do not use web-calculator to answer the following questions.Instead, you need to use the Z distribution table in Appendix A in JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s book. a. If Andrew scored 45 on this test. What is the Z score? Z=45-45 z=0 4 b. If Anna scored 30 oh this test. What is her Z score? Z=30-45 Z=-3. 75 4 c. If BillÃ¢â¬â¢s Z score was 1. 5, what is his real score on this test? 1. 5 = x-45 X=51 4 d. There are 200 students in a sample. How many of these students will have scores that fall under the score of 41? Z=41-45 Z= -1 According to Appendix A . 159 x 200 Answer = 31. 8 fall under 41 4 5. Obtain the PersaonÃ¢â¬â¢s r and coefficient of determination for the following relationships. . Between the IQ and psychology scores. r=. 59231 Determination= . 35084 WEB: http://easycalcul ation. com/statistics/r-squared. php b. Between the IQ and statistics score. r= . 73667 Determination= . 54268 WEB: http://easycalculation. com/statistics/r-squared. php c. Between the psychology scores and statistics scores. r= . 71050 Determination = . 50480 WEB: http://easycalculation. com/statistics/r-squared. php 6. Using a web-calculator, obtain the appropriate correlation coefficients. r= . 85190 http://easycalculation. com/statistics/r-squared. php
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The Battle of King's Mountain Major Ferguson of the Loyalist Militia was tasked with raising and organizing Loyalist units from the backcountry of South Carolina to help prtotect the British General Cornwallis. Ferguson gathered a few Tory units and marched towards Gilbert Town, North Carolina, where he set up a base camp. He issued a command to the opposition forces to lay down their weapons. If they refused he stated he would, Ã¢â¬Å"lay waste to their country with fire and sword. Ã¢â¬ Patriot militia leaders John Sevier and Isaac Shelby sent word to William Campbell in Virginia to aid an attack on Major Ferguson.Many more more militiamen and local gunmen were rallied by the Patriot leaders. These some 1,400 men became what was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Mountain MenÃ¢â¬ . Among these hundreds of men were two traitors who deserted the Patriots and ran off the Gilbert Town to alert Ferguson of the mass of militia converging on him. The Major called for a full retreat to Charlotte, and requested reinforcements for General Cornwallis. The message did not reach Cornwallis until a day after the battle. The Patriot militia recieved word of Ferguson's retreat and urged on to try to catch him.Instead of reaching Charlotte, Ferguson's force camped at King's Mountain where they set camp just west of the mountain's highest point. In a rush to reach the Loyalist regime the Patriots sent over 900 men on horseback throughout the night and the next morning until they reached King's Mountain. The Mountain Men surrounded the camp and attacked. The Patriots formed eight detachments to fully surround the Loyalist camp. British Major Ferguson's force only consisted of Loyalists, not British Red Coats, the majority of which were just rallied days before from South Carolina.The rebel force charged up the mountain screaming and firing their muskets from behind natural barricades. The Loyalists were unaware and were caught off gaurd; Ferguson rallied his troops and led charges down th e hill. Lesser armed, the Patriots retreated to the forest until charging up the hill once again. A pattern formed in the battle in which rebel forces charged up the hill causing a Loyalist charge down the hill. The steep slope of the mountain caused the Loyalists to overshoot and completely miss the charging Patriots, also it became hard to lock on to a target which was in no form and never was in one place.An hour of firing resulting in large losses to the Loyalist force. However, Ferguson felt confident and would not allow a surrender. He continued charging until he was shot off his horse dead before he hit the ground. Eventually the Patriots overwhelmed the leaderless Loyalists and gained a surrender. The Battle at King's Mountain was a decisive victoy for the Patriot army and quite a significant win. There was such an enormous amount of bloodshed mainly because of the Patriots' hunger for retaliation after Banastre Tarleton massacred many continental soldiers. The defeat of Maj or Ferguson helped win the future battle at Cowpens, SC.Ferguson's militia was supposed to help cover General Cornwallis's flank. King's Mountain helped flip thhe momentum in the American south in the favor of the Patriots. The Ã¢â¬Å"Mountain MenÃ¢â¬ were able to destroy the Loyalists using what is one of the early accounts of Ã¢â¬Å"guerilla warfareÃ¢â¬ . British led troops were so used to fighting direct battles against lined troops, but the evasive and morphing attack of the Patriots is what decided their fate. The Battle of King's Mountain will forever stand as one of the pivotal battles of America's fight for freedom and of American history.